by ningjing516 at 10 saat önce
Unless you work in an industry that uses hydraulic-powered machinery, the chances are you'll have little awareness of what a hydraulic hose does (or even that such a thing exists). The truth is hydraulic hoses are a key component in helping many of the UK and Ireland’s businesses to deliver their services, so they're a vital cog that millions of people rely on each day.

What is hydraulic hose?
A hydraulic hose is a specialist type of hose that you'll find in many commercial and industrial settings. Hydraulic hoses are typically constructed from flexible rubber or wire, and feature a series of layers to give the hose its strength and durability. These layers comprise of an inner tube, a reinforced layer and an outer layer.

What is the purpose of hydraulic hose?
Just like a hose you might use to water your garden, the purpose of a hydraulic hose is to allow fluid to flow from one component to another – in this case hydraulic fluid. The hose is the conduit that ensures the fluid is able to travel unimpeded and it's a vital part of keeping hydraulics systems moving. In fact, if a hydraulic hose was to fail it can bring entire production lines to a standstill and take vital machinery offline until the hose can be replaced.

Construction options for hydraulic hose include reinforced, coiled, corrugated, or convoluted. Reinforced hose is constructed with some element of reinforcement—styles include textile braid, wire braid, wire helix, and other designs in many ply or layer configurations. Coiled hose is coiled for flexibility and elasticity. This feature often makes it expandable and easy to store. Corrugated hose contains corrugations, pleats, or spiral convolutions to increase flexibility and capacity for compression and elongation. Multi-element hydraulic hoses are constructed of more than one hose formed or adhered together in a flat, ribbon, or bundled configuration. Additional features to consider include integral end connections, anti-static, lay flat, crush-proof, flame-resistant, and explosion-proof.

In addition, material considerations include the type of fluid being conveyed and its concentration as well as substances that may attack the hose cover. Hose selection must ensure compatibility if it is to convey special oils or chemicals. The same holds for hose exposed to harsh environments. Substances such as UV light, ozone, saltwater, chemicals, and pollutants can cause degradation and premature failure. And for Industrial Hose, there are many different types for different usages such as Pressure Washer HoseSteel Wire Braid Hydraulic HoseSteel Wire Spiral Hydraulic Hose and so on.

While hydraulic hose is usually constructed of multiple materials, the most commonly use primary materials include elastomers, fluoropolymers and silicone, thermoplastics, metal, and composite or laminated structures. Elastomeric or rubber hydraulic hose are often selected for their flexibility. Fluoropolymer hose offer good flex life, superior chemical and corrosion resistance, and can handle high temperatures. Thermoplastic hydraulic hose offer tight minimum bed radii and excellent kink resistance. Metal hoses can handle high temperature flow materials and often can handle very high pressures. They can be either stiff or flexible.

And a hydraulic hose mostly is used together with Hydraulic Fitting(Hydraulic Hose Fitting) and Hydraulic Quick Coupler.
by ningjing516 at 10 saat önce
Injection molding is an important industrial method. It is little bit similar to die casting but the difference is in raw material used. In die casting we use metals which require extremely high temperature for melting but injection molding is mainly done on glasses, elastomers and most commonly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers but this technique is widely used for fabrication of thermoplastic materials. This process is done by heating of raw material and injecting them into the mold cavity by applying pressure at a specific temperature without any change in their chemical composition.

Main parts of Injection Molding Machine:
The main parts of the Injection molding machine are material hopper, barrel, an injection ram/ rotating screw type plunger, heating device (heater), movable pattern, ejectors, and a mold inside mold cavity.

Generally injection molding machines works in horizontal manner. Injection molding machine consists of a barrel (cylindrical pipe). A hopper is located at one end of the barrel. A hydraulic ram or rotating screw runs by electric motor used of providing force is located inside the barrel. A heating element (heater) is attached to the barrel circumstantially used for melt the molding material comes down from the hopper.

On the other side of barrel a mold cavity attached. Mold is located inside the mold cavity and a movable pattern is used in whole manufacturing. Mold is generally made up of copper, aluminum and tool steels. The life cycle for different material molds are different. This can be selected as per requirement.

Working:
Working of injection molding similar to extrusion and it works like an injection as name suggest. Molding material/ raw material pour into the hopper by feeding device. After that molding material goes down under the action of gravity into the cylinder (barrel). A circumferential heater which is located on the barrel is used to melt the material. When powder form of molding material goes dawn into the barrel from hopper it starts melting and a hydraulic ram or rotating screw pushes the material forward into the mold by applying some pressure. Molten plastic material is injected into a closed mold attached on the other side of barrel; in this split mold is used. Molding material goes forward continuously by the rotating screw. Pressure applies by the hydraulic system. Injection pressure is generally 100-150 MPa. After injection, pressure is applied for some time or locked at same position with some force.

After the whole process is done the parts manufactured is cooled sufficiently. Then mould is open and some ejectors are used for proper removal of the part without damage. After removing the part mold is closed again. This process is very fast and automatically repeated. Here complex shape parts can be easily manufactured. Production capacity of injection molding is 12-16 thousand parts per cycle.

The process of injection moulding has today evolved to a high technical level. Major technical advances are not to be expected. Areas of interest to moulding machine designers and engineers include process control and quality assurance where inroads are still to be made as technology progresses.

Applications:
Injection molding is used for making complex shape parts of various sizes having less wall thickness.
Typical parts like cup, containers, toys, plumbing fittings, electrical components, telephones receivers, bottle caps, automotive parts and components.

Except for Injection Molding Machine, many other machine uses the process of moldinng, such as Blow Molding MachineAutomatic Blow Molding MachineSemi Automatic Blow Molding MachineExtrusion Molding MachineJerrycan Blow Molding MachineDrum Extrusion Blow Molding MachinePreform Injection Machine, Cap Injection Molding Machine, etc.
by ningjing516 at 10 saat önce
As the industry leader in phosphine ligands and catalysts for homogeneous catalysis, Solvay offers a range of phosphorus compounds used in a breadth of applications and markets. Our scalable phosphorus chemistry meets the unique requirements of reactions that are crucial to several manufacturing processes across markets and applications, including petrochemicals, life sciences, flavors and fragrances, agrochemicals, fine chemicals, and plastics and other polymers. And do you what is Phosphine Ligands?

Phosphines are a three-valent phosphorus compound and act as a "soft" σ-donating ligand with an unshared electron pair. This gives solubilization and stabilization to organometallic complexes by forming complexes with various transition metal species including latter-period transition metals and others, and is also used for controlling the reactivity and selectivity of the transition metal promoted reactions.

Electron density and bulkiness of phosphine ligands are greatly related to the reactivity of their forming metal complexes. Generally, the phosphine ligands with high electron density increase the reactivity of oxidative addition from a metal center, and their bulkiness improves the reductive elimination. For example, trialkylphosphines especially tert-butyl or cyclohexyl group substituted phosphines show the highest electron density while the electron density of triarylphosphines and phosphite are sequentially decreasing. On the other hand, as an index of the bulkiness of phosphine ligands, that of monodentate phosphine ligands shows the cone angle (θ) while bidentate phosphine ligands show the bite angle (ω). As the angle of the phosphine ligands is wider, their steric effect is greater and they are regarded as more bulky phosphine ligands. A monodentate phosphine ligand of tri(o-tolyl)phosphine, and bidentate phosphine ligands of 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene and Xantphos are known as representative bulky phosphine ligands. There are many different kinds of Phosphine Ligands, such as Chiral Phosphine LigandsChelated Phosphine LigandsBiaryl Phosphine LigandTrisubstituted Phosphine Ligands and Other Phosphine Ligands.

Homogeneous catalysis is an efficient alternative to its heterogeneous counterpart, and enables access to certain molecules that are not accessible through heterogeneous catalysis. Our high-performance phosphine ligands provide endless customization opportunities for catalytic processes. Phosphorus chemistry offers substantial diversity of structure, tunability and thermal stability, which leads to its use in many essential industries and an abundance of applications.

A majority of Solvay's phosphorus technologies are available in liquid or solution form, which facilitates ease of handling and safe product stewardship. Solids are available if preferred. Produced via industry-recognized manufacturing processes, our phosphine ligands and catalysts can be manufactured at any scale. Solvay offers expertise and manufacturing wherewithal at any phase of the value chain, but specializes in developing ligand solutions from the initial R&D stage all the way to industrial-scale production and distribution.

Except for Phosphine Ligands, there are also many other material Intermediate and Function Materials like Catalyst including Homogeneous Catalyst and Olefin Copolymerization Catalyst.
by ningjing516 at 10 saat önce
What Are The Health Benefits of Tea?
People all over the world have been drinking tea for thousands of centuries, and for good reason. Numerous studies have shown that a variety of teas may boost your immune system, fight off inflammation, and even ward off cancer and heart disease. If you consider it troublesome to use Loose Leaf TeaBagged Tea is also a good choice.

While some brews provide more health advantages than others, there's plenty of evidence that regularly drinking tea can have a lasting impact on your wellness. Put the kettle on, because we're sharing some of the biggest benefits hidden in the world's most popular teas.

White Tea Benefits
Known to have a delicate flavor, white tea comes from the Camellia sinensis plant that's native to China and India. It is also the least processed tea variety. Research shows it may be the most effective tea in fighting various forms of cancer thanks to its high level of antioxidants. White tea may also be good for your teeth since it contains a high source of fluoride, catechins and tannins that can strengthen teeth, fight plaque, and make it more resistant to acid and sugar.

This variety also offers the least amount of caffeine, making it a smart choice for tea drinkers who want to avoid or limit their caffeine consumption.

Herbal Tea Benefits
Herbal teas, sometimes called tisanes, are very similar to white teas, but they contain a blend of herbs, spices, fruits or other plants in addition to tea leaves. Herbal teas don't contain caffeine, which is why they're known for their calming properties.

There are numerous types of herbal teas, all with their unique benefits. Some of the most popular herbal teas include:
Chamomile tea – Helps to reduce menstrual pain and muscle spasms, improves sleep and relaxation, and reduces stress
Rooibos – Improves blood pressure and circulation, boosts good cholesterol while lowering bad cholesterol, keeps hair strong and skin healthy, and provides relief from allergies
Peppermint – Contains menthol, which can soothe an upset stomach and serve as a cure for constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and motion sickness. This tea variety also offers pain relief from tension headaches and migraines.
Ginger – Helps to fight against morning sickness, can be used to treat chronic indigestion and helps to relieve joint pain caused by osteoarthritis
Hibiscus – Lowers blood pressure and fat levels, improves overall liver health, can starve off cravings for unhealthy sweets, and may prevent the formation of kidney stones

Green Tea Benefits
Green tea originates from China, where the leaves are processed with heat using a pan-firing or roasting method and Japan, where the leaves are more commonly steamed. Green tea is exceptionally high in flavonoids that can help boost your heart health by lowering bad cholesterol and reducing blood clotting. Studies show this type of tea can also help lower blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol.

Other research has found that green tea has a possible impact on liver, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. This tea variety has also shown to be anti-inflammatory, which helps keep your skin clear and glowing.

If you are not a fan of tea, there are also many different condiments for drinks to increase the flavor, such as many kinds of syrup like Flavored SyrupConcentrated SyrupFruit Pulp Syrup, etc., and many Beverage PowderPudding PowderJelly Powder, Instant Seasoning Powder, Bubble Tea Powder and so on.
by ningjing516 at 10 saat önce
What is LED?
LED is short for Light Emitting Diode. An LED emits light as a result of electric luminescence. It is also known as “cold light” as, unlike with old-fashioned incandescent bulbs, the light is not produced by heating a metal filament. The diode, on the other hand, emits light when flowing through two specially coated silicon semiconductors. It is one of the most energy-efficient and power-saving ways to produce light.

An LED consists of solid materials without movable parts and is often moulded into transparent plastic. This ensures high durability. When an LED is on, it emits almost zero heat. This reduces the problem of cooling the electronic parts.

The first LED was created by Russian inventor Oleg Losev in 1927. For many years, it was only possible to produce infrared, red and yellow LEDs. These diodes were found in everything from remote controls to clock radios. It was not until 1994 that Japanese scientist Shuji Nakamura was able to demonstrate an efficient blue LED. White and green LEDs soon followed, laying the foundation for the LED revolution we have seen in lighting and display technology.

What is an LED Display?
An LED display is a video display made up of light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. LEDs are small electronic devices which produce a very efficient light source. They are widely used in everyday devices from traffic lights to remote controls. Many LED displays are used outdoors in billboards and store signs.

A typical LED display is composed of many LED panels, which are sometimes used as a form of lighting or illumination rather than for display. Two classes of LED panels exist: conventional LED panels, which use discrete LEDs, and surface-mounted device (SMD) panels. Conventional panels are the more common of the two, especially for large outdoor display screens. In this type of LED panel, clusters of red, green, and blue LEDs are grouped together to form numerous square-shaped pixels.

How does an LED Display work?
An LED display consists of many closely-spaced LEDs. By varying the brightness of each LED, the diodes jointly form an image on the display.

To create a bright colour image, the principles of additive colour mixing are used, whereby new colours are created by mixing light in different colours. An LED display consists of red, green and blue LEDs mounted in a fixed pattern. These three colours combine to form a pixel. By adjusting the intensity of the diodes, billions of colours can be formed. When you look at the LED screen from a certain distance, the array of coloured pixels are seen as an image.

There are many types of LED players in the market nowadays, such as MINI LED DisplayCOB LED DisplayGOB LED DisolayUltra HD LED DisplayRental LED DisplayIndoor Rental LED Display, and Outdoor Rental LED Display. And they may be used together with LED Modules including Indoor LED ModuleOutdoor LED ModuleSpherical LED Display, etc.
by ningjing516 at 10 saat önce
Steel Cabinets using advanced technology can be multi-functional depending on the needs of the installation area such as personal property storage, forwarding function such as transportation of goods and parcels in residential areas or storing and transferring documents/papers internally in the office area.

In a rapidly growing society, where all of us are influenced and driven by technology, everything around us is gradually becoming intelligent to meet the needs of life as well as remain friendly with new people and the environment. And usually a Locker can be deivided into Steel Storage Locker and Electronic Locker.

With smart cars and smart phones, Home Steel Cabinets are in as an emerging trend. A versatile cabinet can provide optimal convenience for us. So what does a Smart Locker cabinet do?

There are three of the many solutions for Filing Cabinets receiving a lot of attention about:
Storage of personal belongings
For office
Delivery

Except for a locker cabinet, a home shelf is also widely used as a storage similar tothe locker. No matter how much technology might advance or home renovations get smarter and more modern, there are a few things that can never be replaced, let alone eliminated altogether. For instance – shelves.

Shelves are one of that vital household equipment that have been used since the beginning of time. Shelves are a must in every house because they help you keep the place neat and tidy by storing various things like books, clothes, and countless other items that would be otherwise scattered on the floor. Besides providing storage space and keeping the house organized, a proper shelving system also allows you to decorate and beautify your house by proudly displaying stunning adornments and ornaments that are normally stashed away in the attic.

While the first use of shelf dates as far back as the 8th Century and comprised of a simple slab pivoted to a vertical surface, today there are literally countless types of shelves available to the common man. As for Household Shelf, we often use Compact Shelving while for Heavy Duty Shelf, lots of Steel Shelving and large shelves are preferred.
by ningjing516 at 11 saat önce
Will you choose glass or plastic for your bottles or containers?

Glass adds an element of class to any product. Consumers will pay more per price point for glass because it gives a certain sophistication to almost every item packaged with it. For instance, food, cosmetics, olive oils, beverages, jams/jellies, mayonnaise and hot sauces are packaged in glass bottles and jars. Have you ever bought wine in a plastic container, or how about a six-pack of plastic beer bottles? Plastic tends to give the impression that the product being packaged is cheaper or of lower quality.

On the other side of the coin, glass costs more to ship. It weighs more than plastic and breaks more easily. Additionally, glass jars usually use metal lids, which are more expensive than plastic lids.

Now let's talk about plastic containers: There are thousands of choices for plastic bottles and jars. Many industries use them for many different applications. For instance, health and beauty companies use plastic bottles for shampoo/conditioner, lotions, creams and liquid hand soaps. Plastic is great for these products because if you happen to drop them with your wet hands they do not break and there is no danger of getting cut by broken glass. They are also less likely to break in shipping compared to glass containers. Milk, dairy and juice companies also put their products in plastic containers. Industrial and cleaning supply companies put their products mostly in plastic containers as well. Almost all plastic bottles and jars are outfitted with plastic closures because plastic caps are less expensive than metal caps.

At the end of the day, you can use either glass or plastic for most products, such as Glass Lotion BottleGlass Dropper BottleGlass Pump BottleGlass Cream JarBoston Round Glass BottleGlass Foundation BottleRoll On BottleAirless Pump BottleAirless Syringe BottleCream Container, etc.

Plastic lotion pumps, one of the most popular dispensing methods for viscous (thick liquid) products in the personal care and beauty industry, come in all shapes and sizes. When used as designed, pumps dispense the right amount of product time after time. But have you ever wondered what goes in a lotion pump to makes it work? While there are hundreds of different designs in the market today, the basic principle is the same, and how they contribute to the overall functionality of pumping the product from the bottle to your hand.

Generally speaking, a lotion pump consists of the following components:
Actuator: An actuator, or the pump head, is what the consumer presses down to pump the product out of the container. The actuator is often made of PP plastic and can have many different designs - and often come with a up-lock or down-lock features to prevent accidental output,. This is one of the component designs that can set one pump apart from another when it comes to the exterior design, it is also the part where ergonomics play a role in consumer satisfaction.

Closure: The component that screws the entire assembly onto the neck finish of the bottle. It is identified with the common neck finish destination such as 28-410, 33-400. Often made of PP plastic, it is often designed with a rib side or smooth side surface. In certain cases a shiny metal overshell can be installed to give the lotion pump a high-end, elegant look.

Outer Gasket: The gasket is often friction fitted to the inside of the closure and it acts as a gasket barrier on the bottle land area to prevent product leakage. This outer gasket can be made from a wide variety of materials depending on the manufacturer's design: Rubber, LDPE are just two of the many possible options.

Housing: Sometimes referred to the pump assembly housing, this component holds all the pump components in place as well as acting as a transfer chamber that sends the product from the dip tube to the actuator, and ultimately to the user's hand. This component is often made of PP plastic. Depending on the lotion pump output and design, the size of this housing can differ greatly. A word of caution, if you are pairing the pump with a glass bottle, as glass bottles have thicker side walls, the bottle opening may not be wide enough to fit the housing - be sure to check first for fit and function.
by ningjing516 at 11 saat önce
If you pay more attention on the jewelry, bags or apparel, you will find rhinestones are everywhere! Rhinestones are shiny and eye-catching and they are great for adding sparkle to accessories. They look like diamonds but are not diamonds.

The definition of rhinestones is "An imitation diamond, used in cheap jewellery and to decorate clothes." according to Oxford dictionary. Besides, according to Merriam Webster, America's leading and most-trusted provider of language information, rhinestone is "imitation stone of high luster made of glass, paste, or gem quartz."

We can tell from its definition that the word "rhinestone" can be used widely. From the high-grade Swarovski crystal to normal glass stones or inexpensive plastic stones like acrylic or resin material, they can all be called as rhinestones. There are many kinds of Rhinestones such as Hotfix RhinestonesGlass Flatback RhinestonesFlatback RhinestonesNon Hotfix RhinestonesShaped RhinestonesNon Hotfix Shaped RhinestonesHotfix Shaped RhinestonesNail RhinestonesSmall RhinestonesMicro Rhinestones, etc.

Ways to Tell Rhinestones and Diamonds Apart
Here are some of the most reliable ways to distinguish between diamonds and rhinestones:

Fog Test
A distinctive characteristic of diamond is that due to its physical properties, it does not retain moisture on its surface for a long time. So, if you breathe on a real diamond, the fog created from your breath on the stone will dissipate very quickly, almost instantaneously. If you do the same test with a rhinestone, however, it will stay foggy for some time (usually 5-10 seconds).

Reading Test
Diamonds distort the light that passes through them, and this is why if you try to read printed text through a real diamond, the letters will look blurry. If you try to do the same with a rhinestone, the text will be more easily readable (close to how you would see it through glass). Keep in mind, however, that diamonds that are cut shallow and have parallel walls (e.g., emerald-cut or baguette-cut stones) may not distort text as visibly, making this test inconclusive.

Rhinestones Are Softer than Diamonds
Diamond is the hardest gemstone, and whatever imitation you are looking at, it is bound to be softer that the real thing. Because they are not as hard as diamonds, rhinestones are much easier to scratch, and over time, these scratches accumulate on their surface. Diamonds, on the other hand, are nearly impossible to scratch from everyday wear (they can chip if hit too hard, though). The relative softness of a cut rhinestone can also be seen in its facets, whose edges tend to be somewhat round for that reason. The edges of a diamond's facets are sharper, and due to the hardness of the material, they do not wear out with time.

Using Diamond Testers
Diamond testers are devices that check the conductive properties of a material to test whether it is diamond. Although these tools can tell you if a stone is not a real diamond, they won't show whether it is a rhinestone or something else.

Price as a Sign of Authenticity
Rhinestones are much cheaper than real diamonds of similar size, color, and clarity. Although the low price may indicate that you are not dealing with a genuine diamond, some sellers may try to sell you a rhinestone pretty expensively. Use price as a clue only in conjunction with other tests.
by ningjing516 at 11 saat önce
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are the active components in a pharmaceutical drug that produce the required effect on the body to treat a condition. APIs are produced by processing chemical compounds. In a biologic drug, the active ingredient is known as a bulk process intermediate (BPI).

Despite high manufacturing expenses, strict regulatory policies, and policies in controlling drug prices in many countries, attractive opportunities have emerged in the API market due to growing cases of chronic diseases, including diabetes, asthma and cancer.

Types of active pharmaceutical ingredients
APIs are broadly categorised into two types – synthetic and natural. Synthetic APIs are further classified into innovative and generic synthetic APIs, based on the type of synthesis used.

Synthetic chemical APIs, also known as small molecules, constitute a large part of the pharmaceutical market, with many small molecule drugs commercially available in the market. Natural APIs are used in making biologics, which are increasingly becoming the top-selling drugs in the market. Despite the growing demand, biologics are currently significantly fewer in number compared to small molecule drugs.

Based on the solubility, APIs are categorised into insoluble and soluble drugs.

Top active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates suppliers Pharmaceutical Technology has listed the leading suppliers of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates based on its intel, insights and decades-long experience in the sector. The list includes companies that can develop and supply high-quality pharmaceutical materials, including, but not limited to:

Fine chemicals and intermediates, such as:
high-docosahexaenoic acid oil for API production
APIs for central nervous system therapies
Natural cannabinoid (CBD) ingredients, CBD isolates and cannabis distillates
Excipients
Insulin for cell culture media
Ammonium compounds
Mineral salts

There are many types of Pharmaceutical Intermediates existing in the market for different functions like Antiviral DrugAnti-diabeticAntidepressantsCardiovascular MedicationsSexually Enhanced MedicinesComplementary Medicines and Other Intermediates.
by ningjing516 at 11 saat önce
What is Printed Circuit Board?
A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a Sheet of Insulating Material such as Fiberglass, with Metallic Circuit or Track Printed or Etched on it for Electrical Conductivity. A PCB is found in almost all electronic products that we use in our daily life – Mobile Phone, Tablet, TV, Computer, Laptop, Keyboard, Mouse, Military Weapons, Airplane, Satellite etc.

In applications where fine conductive traces are needed, such as computers, PCBs are made by a photolithographic process, in a larger scale version of the way conductive paths in processors are made.

Electronic components are typically placed by machine onto a finished PCB that has solder dabs in place. The PCB bakes in an industrial oven to melt the solder, which joins the connections. Most PCBs are made from fiberglass or glass-reinforced plastics with copper traces. PCBs can be single-layer for simple electronic devices. Printed circuit boards for complex hardware, such as computer graphics cards and motherboards, may have up to twelve layers. PCBs are most often green but they can come in any color.

Other methods of PCB manufacturing include silk-screening and CNC-milling.

Different types of printed circuit boards
The most basic type of PCB is the original single-layer board which, as the name suggests, involves mounting one layer of copper on a substrate. Later developments led to double-layer and multi-layer PCBs, which saw multiple copper layers applied to two or more substrate layers. This made it possible to add a much higher density of components to the PCB and use them to create more powerful devices. While multi-layer boards did make maintenance more difficult, they soon became so cheap to make that it is now often more cost-effective to replace an entire board than to repair it.

Today, the most common substrate is FR-4 glass epoxy, though new materials have emerged as the popularity of PCBs has grown. Examples of PCB configurations include rigid PCBs, flexible PCBs, rigid-flex PCBs, and high-frequency PCBs. The different configurations often use different substrates. And there are many different types of PCB such as Flexible PCBRigid-Flex PCBHDI PCB BoardHigh Frequency PCBAluminum PCBCeramic PCBMultilayer PCB, etc.

What is PCB Assembly?
Well, a PCB is of No use unless we solder some Active and Passive Electronic Components on to the Board. These Electronic Components can be either Thru-Hole of SMD (Surface Mount Components). Once all the Electronic Components are Soldered (Assembled) on to the Board, it is Termed as Printed Circuit Board Assembly or PCB Assembly. The assembly can be also divided into Aerospace PCB Assembly and Automotive PCB Assembly.
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